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 Harvestmen
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Arachnid - Harvestman - brown with black legs
Arachnid - Harvestman - brown with black legs


Harvestmen
Harvestmen (Opiliones) are an order in the class Arachnida. There are about 4,000 different species worldwide, some of which are designed like Acarina or compact and mite shaped and others which are long legged. Harvestmen are from 2 to 22 mm in length. In Central Europe, many species are endangered. Cyphopalpatores are the species of Harvestmen which occur in Europe. Some examples of this are: Sironidae, Travuniidae, Nemastomatidae, Trogulidae, Ischyropsalididae, Phalangiidae and Sclerosomatidae.
Arachnid - Harvestman on blossom
Arachnid - Harvestman on blossom
In contrast to spiders the head, chest and abdomen form one unit. Harvestmen have neither spinning glands nor poison glands. Like all arachnids they have 8 legs, which in many species are very long and can reach up to 25 times the actual body length. If the Harvestmen is attacked, it can separate from one leg, this misleads its attacker , encouraging it to continue moving away and later is restored. This leg grows back over the course of time.
Harvestman on a green leafe
Harvestman on a green leafe
The sensors (Pedipalps) which are often counted as a fifth pair of legs due to their shape, have different purposes, reproduction or food intake.
The Harvestmen eat their prey alive. Harvestmen can perceive ultraviolet light, but their eyesight is weak. Some species are covered in colourful ‘spikes’ which are visible under a microscope but the function of these has not yet been explained. In some species the males are darker than the females and are also larger.
Harvestmen live mostly in the bottom layer of humus and feed mainly on small Arthropods. They are found in hardwood forests, gardens, hedgerows, meadows and parks, some species live in dunes, heathland or moors. There, they graze dead plant parts, on which sit Arthropod corrosive. They can be encountered in larger numbers in natural hardwood forests, groves close to wetlands and forests where they break their hundreds in a confined space can be encountered where hundreds can be found in a small area.
Harvestmen are only active at night and their behaviour is not affected by adverse weather conditions. Female harvestmen lay their eggs in small holes or cracks in the ground.

Due to the intensification of agriculture and forestry habitats have been lost and this is a real threat to many species of harvestmen.

Families68
Genera1.705
Species8.092
Common namesHarvest Spiders, Daddy-long-legs, Harvestmen, Daddy longlegs, Daddy long-legs
German namesWeberknechte, Kanker, Schneider
Dutch namesHooiwagens
Danish namesMejere
Finnish namesLukit
Norwegian namesVevkjerringer
Swedish namesLockespindlar
French namesOpilions
AuthorSundevall, 1833
Distribution
Continents:

Eurasia (Asia, Europe, Russia, Caucasus, Kaukasia)

America (North America, South America, Central America, Caribbean)

Africa (East Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, North Africa, West Africa)

Oceania (Australasia, Polynesia, Melanesia, Micronesia)


Ecozones:

Palaearctic, Nearctic, Afrotropical, Neotropical, Holarctic

Fossils:

Cenozoic (Paleogene, Neogene)

Paleozoic (Permian, Carboniferous)

Mesozoic (Cretaceous, Jurassic)


World Oceans:

Pacific Ocean (Pacific Islands, North Pacific)

Atlantic Ocean (Mediterranean Sea, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands)


Countries
Checklists
Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Republic of the Congo, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Korea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, USA, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zimbabwe
Links and ReferencesOpiliones in bie.ala.org.au
Opiliones in faunaeur.org
Opiliones in itis.gov
Opiliones in staffs-ecology.org.uk
Opiliones in dyntaxa.se
Opiliones in Wikipedia (English)

Description of images / photos
Photography with Cameras
Nikon D3x, Nikon D300, Canon 50D
Image editing with Photoshop
1. Arachnid - Harvestman - brown with black legs
2. Arachnid - Harvestman on blossom
3. Harvestman on a green leafe
Quick search: Harvestmen - Arachnids - Europe - Arachnid - Harvestman - Sensors
Ultraviolet - Species - Legs - Small - Forests - Leg - Class - Colourful
Taxonomy
ClassArachnida
Arachnids
SubclassDromopoda
OrderOpiliones
Harvest Spiders, Daddy-long-legs, Harvestmen, Daddy longlegs, Daddy long-legs
AuthorSundevall, 1833
 
Synonyms
Holetra (Latreille, 1817)
Phalangida (Latreille, 1802)
Phalangidea (Leach, 1815)
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