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Lace bug - Tingidae
Lace bug - Tingidae

Lace bugs
The lace bugs (Tingidae) are a family of true bugs, in the order Hemiptera, the suborder Heteroptera, the infraorder Cimicomorpha and the superfamily Cimicoidea (synonym Tingoidea). This family includes the subfamilies Cantacaderinae, Tinginae and Vianaidinae. There are approximately 2000 species of lace bugs throughout the world and they are common and widespread. Around 190 species occur in Europe, 75 in Central Europe (Germany, Austria). The latter belong to the subfamily Tinginae.
Some examples of lace bug species are: Stephanitis rhododendri, andromeda lace bug (Stephanitis takeyai), Stephanitis pyri, Monosteira unicostata, sycamore lace bug (Corythucha ciliata), gorse lacebug (Dictyonota strichnocera), Acalypta parvula, Dictyonota fuliginosa, Kalama tricornis, Derephysia foliacea, Tingis ampliata, spear thistle lace bug (Tingis cardui), Physatocheila dumetorum, Dictyla convergent, Agramma laetum, hawthorn lace bug (Corythucha cydonia), sugarcane lace bug (Leptodictya tabida), avocado lace bug (Pseudacysta persea), azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides) and lantana lace bug (Teleonemia scrupulosa). While most lace bugs produce 1 or 2 new generations per year, many species produce more.
Adult Tingidae reach body lengths of 2 - 10 mm. Their elongated bodies are oval or flat. Their simple eyes (ocelli) are regressed. The pronotum is keeled and has a lace like structure. Its margin in many species is widened and folded. At the front edge of the pronotum hood-like shaped cysts can often be found. These bubbles on the neck may be so large that the head is hidden beneath them. In some more developed species the posterior edge of the pronotum extends into an appendage. It could be that the extension of the scutellum is superimposed.
Lace bugs cause negligible damage in Central Europe, however because they often occur en masse in the tropics, they can cause considerable damage in agriculture there.
Some species of lace bugs overwinter as adults. After mating, the fertilized females use their ovipositor to lay their eggs almost exclusively on the underside of the leaves of the food plants of their larvae (nymphs). The eggs of some species spend the winter there. The hatched larvae have longer or shorter thorns depending on what species they are. The typical lace like structure of the upper body is absent. In the first larval stage, they still do not have wings, these are formed only from the 2nd and 3rd stage on, and are fully developed by the end of the last larval stage. In most species larval development occurs in 5 stages, in some species, just 4. The metamorphosis of the larvae of lace bugs is incomplete because it does not involve a pupal stage. The transition from nymph to adult lace bug is finished with the last moult. The nymphs of some species of lace bugs overwinter on the food plants.

Further chapters of "Lace Bugs"
- Andromeda lace bug
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1. Lace bug - Tingidae
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Lace bugs in Wikipedia
Lace bugs in
Lace bug - Tingidae
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