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 Andromeda lace bug
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Lace bug - Tingidae
Lace bug - Tingidae


Lace bugs
The lace bugs (Tingidae) are a family of true bugs, in the order Hemiptera, the suborder Heteroptera, the infraorder Cimicomorpha and the superfamily Cimicoidea (synonym Tingoidea). This family includes the subfamilies Cantacaderinae, Tinginae and Vianaidinae. There are approximately 2000 species of lace bugs throughout the world and they are common and widespread. Around 190 species occur in Europe, 75 in Central Europe (Germany, Austria). The latter belong to the subfamily Tinginae.
Some examples of lace bug species are: Stephanitis rhododendri, andromeda lace bug (Stephanitis takeyai), Stephanitis pyri, Monosteira unicostata, sycamore lace bug (Corythucha ciliata), gorse lacebug (Dictyonota strichnocera), Acalypta parvula, Dictyonota fuliginosa, Kalama tricornis, Derephysia foliacea, Tingis ampliata, spear thistle lace bug (Tingis cardui), Physatocheila dumetorum, Dictyla convergent, Agramma laetum, hawthorn lace bug (Corythucha cydonia), sugarcane lace bug (Leptodictya tabida), avocado lace bug (Pseudacysta persea), azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides) and lantana lace bug (Teleonemia scrupulosa). While most lace bugs produce 1 or 2 new generations per year, many species produce more.
Adult Tingidae reach body lengths of 2 - 10 mm. Their elongated bodies are oval or flat. Their simple eyes (ocelli) are regressed. The pronotum is keeled and has a lace like structure. Its margin in many species is widened and folded. At the front edge of the pronotum hood-like shaped cysts can often be found. These bubbles on the neck may be so large that the head is hidden beneath them. In some more developed species the posterior edge of the pronotum extends into an appendage. It could be that the extension of the scutellum is superimposed.
The wing covers (elytra) also have a lace like surface. This structure, in addition to the structure of the antennae and the body shape, is an essential feature in the identification of the various species and gave rise to their common name in both English and German. Here, the number of strips and the mesh of the lattice plays an essential role. The wing membranes are difficult to discern beneath the ‘lace’. There are species with well developed wings and others which cannot fly because their wings are too short. The lace bugs and their larvae excrete wax particles, which make them look as if they are powdered with dust. Due to their external appearance, lace bugs can be confused with Piesmidae.
Lace bugs feed solely on plants, either on individual plant species (monophagous) or on a limited number of plant families (oligophagous). This is reflected in the name of each species (hawthorn lace bug, sugarcane lace bug, avocado lace bug, azalea lace bug etc. ). Lace bugs sit on the flowers and leaf undersides of their host plants. These insects are rather inactive and mostly hide between plant’s hairs, spines or in deeper holes. When disturbed they are unlikely to escape. Lace bugs feed on plant juices, which they remove from the epidermis layer of the leaf undersides with their piercing and sucking mouth parts. When the leaf cells are empty, the damaged area is discoloured bronze or silver. Each individual spends its entire life on the one plant, if not on the same plant part.
Lace bugs cause negligible damage in Central Europe, however because they often occur en masse in the tropics, they can cause considerable damage in agriculture there.
Some species of lace bugs overwinter as adults. After mating, the fertilized females use their ovipositor to lay their eggs almost exclusively on the underside of the leaves of the food plants of their larvae (nymphs). The eggs of some species spend the winter there. The hatched larvae have longer or shorter thorns depending on what species they are. The typical lace like structure of the upper body is absent. In the first larval stage, they still do not have wings, these are formed only from the 2nd and 3rd stage on, and are fully developed by the end of the last larval stage. In most species larval development occurs in 5 stages, in some species, just 4. The metamorphosis of the larvae of lace bugs is incomplete because it does not involve a pupal stage. The transition from nymph to adult lace bug is finished with the last moult. The nymphs of some species of lace bugs overwinter on the food plants.

Genera345
Species3.199
Common namesLace bugs, Lacebugs
German namesGitterwanzen, Netzwanzen
Dutch namesNetwantsen
Danish namesMasketæger
Finnish namesVerkkoluteet
Norwegian namesNetteger
Swedish namesNätskinnbaggar
French namesTingidés, Tigres
AuthorLaporte, 1832
Distribution
Checklists

Continents:

Eurasia
America
Africa
Oceania


Ecozones:

Nearctic
Indo-Australian region


Fossils:

Cenozoic
Paleozoic
Mesozoic


World Oceans:

Atlantic Ocean


Countries
Checklists
Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Korea, Norway, Pakistan, Palau, Palestine, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Republic of the Congo, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Korea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, USA, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Links and ReferencesTingidae in bie.ala.org.au
Tingidae in faunaeur.org
Tingidae in hemiptera-databases.org
Tingidae in itis.gov
Tingidae in dyntaxa.se
Tingidae in Wikipedia (English)

Further chapters of "Lace Bugs"
- Andromeda lace bug
Description of images / photos
Photography with Cameras
Nikon D3x, Nikon D300, Canon 50D
Image editing with Photoshop
1. Lace bug - Tingidae
Quick search: Lace - Bug - Bugs - Tingidae - Stephanitis - Andromeda
Insects - Thistle - Spear - Structure - Body - Wings - Species - Leaf
Sources, links and more informations
Lace bugs in Wikipedia
Lace bugs in britishbugs.org.uk
Lace bug - Tingidae
Taxonomy
ClassInsecta
Insects, True insects
SubclassPterygota
Winged insects
InfraclassNeoptera
Wing-folding insects
SuperorderParaneoptera
OrderHemiptera
Hemipterans, True bugs, Cicadas, Aphids, Hoppers, Allies, Bugs
SuborderHeteroptera
True bugs, Bugs, Gerrids
InfraorderCimicomorpha
Thaumastocorid bugs
SuperfamilyTingoidea
FamilyTingidae
Lace bugs, Lacebugs
AuthorLaporte, 1832
 
Synonyms
Tingididae (C. B. Wilson, 1908)
Tingitidae (C. B. Wilson, 1921)
 Species overview

Keywords
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Frequent Queries:
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