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Common crane fly - Tipula oleracea - front view
Common crane fly - Tipula oleracea - front view


Common crane fly
The Common crane fly (Tipula oleracea) is a species of the genus Tipula, in the order two-winged flies (Diptera), the suborder thread-horns (Nematocera), the family crane flies (Tipulidae), and the subfamily Tipulinae. This species is widespread in Europe.
Common crane fly - Tipula oleracea - on blossom
Common crane fly - Tipula oleracea - on blossom
Adult Tipula oleracea reach body lengths of up to 26 mm. The body is grey and brown in colour. The pronotum is dark and the wings are more or less transparent with a brick red front edge. The abdomen of the males is thicker at the end and ochre to yellow-grey in colour. The females have an ovipositor at the end of their abdomens. The long legs of Tipula oleracea are stilt like in shape. Tipula oleracea cannot sting.
The larvae are brown and are 3 - 4 mm in length in the beginning. They reach lengths of up to several centimetres later. Tipula oleracea have a life expectancy of 8 months and usually produce 2 new generations a year. The first generation is active from April to June, the second from August to October. The adults feed on nectar or water.
The females lay the first generation of eggs in spring in loose, moist soil or in damp meadows, in gardens or in cultivated land. The eggs are oval and about 1 mm in size and can number up to 1, 200. The larvae hatch after 15 days and feed on fallen leaves or on the roots of young plants. They can cause considerable damage in horticulture and agriculture. 300 to 400 larvae per square metre of usable area is not uncommon. The larvae pupate in the soil about 4 months after hatching. During this time, they shed their skin 4 times. The pupae overwinter in the soil.

Tipula (Tipula) oleracea
Common namesCommon crane fly, Marsh Crane Fly, Crane Fly
German namesKohlschnake, Erdschnake
Danish namesKålstankelben
Finnish namesKaalivaaksiainen
Swedish namesKålharkrank
AuthorCarl von Linné (Carl Nilsson Linnæus), 1758
Distribution
Continents:

Eurasia
Europe
North Europe (British Isles (United Kingdom (Great Britain (England (English Midlands (East Midlands (Leicestershire))))), Ireland), Germany, Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, Denmark), Fennoscandia (Finland), Baltic region (Baltic States (Lithuania))), West Europe (Austria, France (South France (Corsica)), Switzerland, Benelux (Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg)), South Europe (Italy (Italy Islands (Sicily, Sardinia), North Italy, South Italy), Iberian Peninsula (Spain, Portugal)), Central Europe (Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia), Southeast Europe (Romania, Yugoslavia (Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia, Montenegro), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia), Bulgaria, Greece), East Europe (Ukraine), Malta
Russia
Africa
North Africa
Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco
America
South America
Ecuador
North America
Canada, USA


Ecozones:

Palaearctic
West Palaearctic
Holarctic
Nearctic
Neotropical


Fossils:

CountriesAlgeria, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, USA, Ukraine, United Kingdom
Links and ReferencesTipula oleracea in faunaeur.org
Tipula oleracea in dyntaxa.se
Tipula oleracea in Wikipedia (English)

Description of images / photos
Photography with Cameras
Nikon D3x, Nikon D300, Canon 50D
Image editing with Photoshop
1. Common crane fly - Tipula oleracea - front view
2. Common crane fly - Tipula oleracea - on blossom
Quick search: Tipula - Fly - Sting - Common - Crane - Size
Larvae - Soil - Front - Feed - Species - Grey - Females - Colour
Taxonomy
ClassInsecta
Insects, True insects
SubclassPterygota
Winged insects
InfraclassNeoptera
Wing-folding insects
SuperorderHolometabola
Holometabolous Insects
OrderDiptera
True flies, Mosquitoes, Gnats, Flies
SuborderNematocera
Long-horned flies, Mosquitoes
InfraorderTipulomorpha
Crane Flies
SuperfamilyTipuloidea
FamilyTipulidae
Crane Flies, Crane fly, Large Crane Flies, Craneflies, Daddy-long-legs
SubfamilyTipulinae
TribeTipulini
GenusTipula
Daddy longlegs, Cranefly
SubgenusTipula
Daddy longlegs, Cranefly
Speciesoleracea
Tipula oleracea
Common crane fly, Marsh Crane Fly, Crane Fly
AuthorLinnaeus, 1758
 
Synonyms
Tipula (Tipula) submendosa
Tipula pratensis
Tipula submendosa
 Species overview
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Keywords
ABCDEFGHIJKLM
NOPQRSTUVWXYZ
German Flag Kohlschnake
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