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 Chrysanthemum leaf miner
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Leaf-miner fly - Agromyzidae
Leaf-miner fly - Agromyzidae

Leaf-miner flies
The leaf-miner flies (Agromyzidae) are a family in the order Diptera, the suborder Brachycera, the infraorder Muscomorpha (section: Schizophora; subsection: Acalyptratae) and the superfamily Opomyzoidea. The leaf-miner flies are divided into the subfamilies Phytomyzinae and Agromyzinae. 2500 to 3000 species exist worldwide, 906 of which occur in Europe, 350 in Central Europe. Some examples of these species are: Liriomyza trifolii, Agromyza parvicornis, Agromyza maculosa, Liriomyza huidobrensis, Phytomyza lilcis and Liriomyza sativae.
Leaf-miner flies reach body lengths of 2-3 mm. Their wings can be 1-7 mm in length. A striking trait of these insects is that the skin on the forehead and face is a markedly different colour to that of the rest of the head; this is due to a hardening of the skin which causes this special colouration.
The female leaf-miner flies have an ovipositor at the end of their bodies. The adult Agromyzidae and their larvae live purely on vegetable substances (phytophagous) feeding on leaf tissue or other plant parts; the males live mainly off nectar and honeydew.
Leaf-miner flies have a life expectancy of about 7 days. During this time a female lays up to 400 eggs. When leaf-miner flies occur in large numbers, they can cause significant damage to crops. This led to the extensive use of pesticides in the past. However after initial successes, leaf-miner flies developed resistance to these poisons so that today they are increasingly combatted using their natural enemies, such as the parasitic wasps Dacnusa sibirica and Diglyphus isaea.

Further chapters of "Leaf-miner flies"
- Chrysanthemum leaf miner
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1. Leaf-miner fly - Agromyzidae
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