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Dung midges - Minute black scavenger flies
The minute black scavenger flies (Scatopsidae), also known as "dung midges" are an important family, in the order flies (Diptera), the suborder Nematocera, the infraorder Psychodomorpha and the superfamily Scatopsoidea. This family is divided into the subfamilies Aspistinae, Ectaetiinae, Psectrosciarinae and Scatopsinae. The subfamilies include 31 genera, and around 250 to 300 different species.

The following genera are known: Anapausis, Apiloscatopse, Arthria, Aspistes, Austroclemina, Borneoscatopse, Brahemyia, Coboldia, Colobostema, Cooka, Diamphidicus, Efcookella, Ectaetia, Ferneiella, Hawomersleya, Holoplagia, Mesoscatopse, Neorhegmoclemina, Parascatopse, Parmaferia, Procolobostema, Protoscatopse, Psectrosciara, Quateiella, Reichertella, Rhegmoclema, Rhegmoclemina, Rhexoza, Scatopse, Swammerdamella and Thripomorpha. The minute black scavenger fly is found throughout the world. In Germany, 35 Scatopsidae species exist. The oldest fossils of Scatopsidae in amber date back to the Cretaceous period.
This is achieved by small, dark, often tiny midges with body lengths of 0. 6 - 5 mm. Most species average around1. 5 mm in length. Scatopsidae are hairless They cannot sting. Due to their appearance they can be confused with black flies (Simuliidae) but they normally do not have an arched chest (thorax).
Adult Scatopsidae like to rest on parsley, to feed on the nectar. They are often found in rural residential areas, as these generally provide favourable conditions for the development of their larvae.
Female Scatopsidae lay their eggs on decaying animals or vegetable waste and can thus be found on compost heaps, dung, in toilets, on garbage heaps and so on. They also often appear on or in buildings such as dwellings, sheds or storage facilities. When they appear en masse, they can make food supplies inedible due to germs and impurities such as animals and human beings are a nuisance and are thus considered a nuisance by humans. The larvae are social and feed on rotting waste materials. They are found under bark, in dead wood, fungi or feces, according to what species they are. Some species live as guests with ants. The larvae breathe with the help of tube-like elongated openings. At the end of the last larval stage, the larvae pupate inside their outer skin. Within the chrysalis, the Scatopsidae breathe through tubes, which branch off from the thorax.


Sources, links and more informations
The minute black scavenger flies in Wikipedia
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