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Comma - Polygonia c-album
Comma - Polygonia c-album


Comma butterfly
The comma butterfly (Polygonia c-album; also: Nymphalis c-album) is in the family Nymphalidae. This species belongs to the subfamily Nymphalinae, the tribe Nymphalini and the genus Polygonia. The comma butterfly is widespread from Europe and North Africa to East Asia.
Polygonia c-album
Polygonia c-album
It reaches wingspans of 40 - 50 mm. The upper surface of the wings is orange in colour with black, brown and yellow spots. The underside of the wings is dark brown in colour and bears a striking, white marking in the form of a "C", hence the name "comma". The colouration and patterning of the comma butterfly varies within a year from one generation to another. The caterpillars of the comma butterfly reach body lengths of up to 30 mm. They are orange-brown in colour are with black markings. The upper surface of the body is two-thirds white in colour. The upper third is yellow and black.
Butterfly - Comma
Butterfly - Comma
The comma butterfly produces 1 to 2 new generations a year. It is active in the period from May to October. The caterpillars appear from May to August. The butterflies live on forest roads, forest edges, brush (willow, hazel and elm) and in gardens, where they eat nectar preferably from gooseberry plants, hops, flowering garden plants and summer lilac. In midsummer, they are often encountered on fallen fruits.
Nymphalis c-album - Nymphalinae
Nymphalis c-album - Nymphalinae
The females lay their eggs on the underside of the leaves of the caterpillar’s forage plants, for example on willow, hazel, fluttery elm, field elm, mountain elm, hops, great nettle, gooseberry and raspberry plants. Around 250 eggs are laid separately. 2 - 3 weeks later the solitary caterpillars hatch. During the day they stay on the underside of the leaves. The larval stage lasts 6 weeks and then the caterpillars pupate. The pupae are striking; the middle is constrictedly built and has a hump with shiny, metallic patches on the front and back. . The second generation of comma butterflies overwinter as adults.

Polygonia c-album
Subspecies42
Common namesComma, Anglewings, Comma Butterfly, Himalayan Comma
German namesC-Falter, Weisses C, C-Fuchs, C-Vogel
Dutch namesGehakkelde aurelia
Danish namesDet Hvide C
Finnish namesHerukkaperhonen
Norwegian namesHvit c
Swedish namesVinbärsfuks
Spanish namesC-blanca, Escisa
Italian namesVanessa c-bianco
French namesGamma, Robert-le-diable, C-blanc, Dentelle, Vanesse Gamma, Papillon-C, Le, Le Gamma
AuthorCarl von Linné (Carl Nilsson Linnæus), 1758
Eco zoneFreshwater
Distribution
Continents:

Eurasia
Europe
North Europe (British Isles (United Kingdom (Great Britain (England (South England (Southeast England (Kent (East Kent (Folkestone), North Kent), Isle of Wight, Hampshire, Berkshire, Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Sussex (East Sussex, West Sussex), Surrey county), Southwest England (Cornwall, Gloucestershire, Somerset, Wiltshire, Dorsetshire), Greater London), East England (Suffolk, Hertfordshire, Essex, Cambridgeshire (Huntingdonshire), Bedfordshire), English Midlands (East Midlands (Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire), West Midlands (Herefordshire, Staffordshire, Worcestershire, Shropshire, Warwickshire)), North England (Northeast England (Northumberland, County Durham), Yorkshire)), Wales (South Wales (Southwest Wales (Pembrokeshire), Southeast Wales (Monmouthshire)), Mid Wales (Brecknockshire, Radnorshire, Montgomeryshire), North Wales (Merionethshire, Anglesey))), Northern Ireland), Ireland), Germany (West Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia)), Scandinavia (Norway (Vestfold, Aust-Agder, Vest-Agder, Akershus, Buskerud, Oslo, Rogaland, Telemark, Hedmark, Hordaland, Nord-Trøndelag, Oppland, Sogn and Fjordane, Sør-Trøndelag, Østfold), Sweden, Denmark), Fennoscandia (Finland (Åland Islands)), Baltic region (Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania))), West Europe (Austria, France (South France (Corsica, Occitania (Midi-Pyrenees))), Switzerland, Benelux (Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg), Liechtenstein), South Europe (Italy (Italy Islands (Sicily, Sardinia), North Italy, South Italy (Abruzzo (L´Aquila)), Central Italy (Lazio (Rome))), Iberian Peninsula (Spain (South Spain (Andalusia)), Portugal, Andorra)), Central Europe (Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic (Moravia, Bohemia), Slovakia), Southeast Europe (Romania, Yugoslavia (Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia), Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia), Bosnia and Herzegovina), Bulgaria, Greece, Albania, Moldova), East Europe (Ukraine, Belarus), Malta
Asia
Far East (Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Thailand), East Asia (China, Taiwan, Japan, Mongolia, Korea (North Korea, South Korea))), South Asia (India, Pakistan, Nepal), West Asia (Near East (Turkey, Iran, Lebanon, Iraq)), Central Asia (Turkestan (Kyrgyzstan)), North Asia
Caucasus
Armenia, Georgia
Russia
European Russia (North European Russia (Leningrad Oblast)), Siberia (Russian Far East (Sakhalin Oblast (Sakhalin)))
Africa
North Africa
Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco
America
North America
USA (Washington)
Oceania
Polynesia
Norfolk Island


Fossils: Paleozoic,
Devonian,

Ecozones:

Palaearctic
West Palaearctic


CountriesAlbania, Algeria, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, North Korea, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, USA, Ukraine, United Kingdom
Links and ReferencesPolygonia c-album in faunaeur.org
Polygonia c-album in leps.it
Polygonia c-album in dyntaxa.se
Polygonia c-album in Wikipedia (English)

Description of images / photos
Photography with Cameras
Nikon D3x, Nikon D300, Canon 50D
Image editing with Photoshop
1. Comma - Polygonia c-album
2. Polygonia c-album
3. Butterfly - Comma
4. Nymphalis c-album - Nymphalinae
Quick search: Butterfly - Comma - Brush - Body - Species - Butterflies
Colour - Plants - Polygonia - Caterpillars - Black - Underside - Brown - Generation
Taxonomy
ClassInsecta
Insects, True insects
SubclassPterygota
Winged insects
InfraclassNeoptera
Wing-folding insects
SuperorderHolometabola
Holometabolous Insects
OrderLepidoptera
Lepidopterans, Butterflies and Moths
SuborderGlossata
InfraorderHeteroneura
SectionCossina
SubsectionBombyces
SuperfamilyPapilionoidea
True butterflies, Butterflies
FamilyNymphalidae
Brush Footed Butterflies, Fritillaries, Browns, Admirals, Four-footed butterflies, Brushfoot butterflies, Purples, Mourningclocks, Crescent-spots, Checker-spots, Anglewings, Brushfooted Butterflies
SubfamilyNymphalinae
True Brushfoots, Anglewings, Tortoiseshells, Thistle butterflies, Peacocks, True Brush-foots, Crescents, Checkerspots, Brushfoots, Admirals
TribeNymphalini
True Brushfoots
GenusPolygonia
Anglewings, Commas, Question Marks, Comma
Speciesc-album
Polygonia c-album
Comma, Anglewings, Comma Butterfly, Himalayan Comma
AuthorLinnaeus, 1758
 
Synonyms
Grapta agnicula
Nymphalis c-album
Papilio c-album
Polygonia c-album
Polygonia castanea
Polygonia delta-album
Polygonia elongana
Polygonia extincta
Polygonia i-album
Polygonia immaculata
Polygonia imperfecta
Polygonia manchurica
Polygonia nigracastanea
Polygonia nigrolunaria
Polygonia nubilata
Polygonia o-album
Polygonia obscura
Polygonia p-album
Polygonia pallida
Polygonia pusilla
Polygonia uncipuncta
Polygonia variegata
Polygonia vilarrubiai
Vanena hutchinsoni
Vanessa c-album
Vanessa cloqueti
Vanessa comma-alba
Vanessa f-album
Vanessa g-album
Vanessa lutescens
Vanessa melanosticta
 
Subspecies
Polygonia c-album agnicula
Polygonia c-album asakurai
Polygonia c-album c-album
Polygonia c-album c-extinctum
Polygonia c-album carbonaria
Polygonia c-album castanea
Polygonia c-album chingana
Polygonia c-album cloqueti
Polygonia c-album cognata
Polygonia c-album coreana
Polygonia c-album delta-album
Polygonia c-album dilutus
Polygonia c-album extensa
Polygonia c-album extincta
Polygonia c-album fentoni
Polygonia c-album g-album
Polygonia c-album hamigera
Polygonia c-album hemigera
Polygonia c-album hutchinsoni
Polygonia c-album hutchinsonii
Polygonia c-album i-album
Polygonia c-album imperfecta
Polygonia c-album implumis
Polygonia c-album intermedia
Polygonia c-album iota-album
Polygonia c-album kashmira
Polygonia c-album koreana
Polygonia c-album kultukensis
Polygonia c-album lunigera
Polygonia c-album neole
Polygonia c-album nigracastanea
Polygonia c-album nigrolunaria
Polygonia c-album nubilata
Polygonia c-album o-album
Polygonia c-album obscura
Polygonia c-album pictior
Polygonia c-album reichstettensis
Polygonia c-album sachalinensis
Polygonia c-album sagitta-album
Polygonia c-album suffusa
Polygonia c-album tibetana
Polygonia c-album variegata
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Keywords
ABCDEFGHIJKLM
NOPQRSTUVWXYZ
German Flag C-Falter
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