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Large White - Pieris brassicae
Large White - Pieris brassicae


Large white
The large white (Pieris brassicae), also called cabbage butterfly or cabbage white, belongs to the family Pieridae. The large white is found in a variety of habitats in northern Africa, Asia and Europe. In Europe, the large white is the most well known butterfly.
Pieris brassicae
Pieris brassicae
It feeds on nectar from thistles and cornflowers. In May or June the females lay about 100 to 300 eggs in groups on the host plants, on the undersides of the leaves. The caterpillars hatch after about 2 weeks and are yellowish-green and spotted black. They eat in groups. The older larvae are solitary. The caterpillars can be encountered from June to October and reach lengths of up to 40 mm. They develop a clear warning sign, and are equipped with a chemical defense system which is based on sulphur compounds and derived from the forage plants (various types of cabbage, milkwort, nasturtium). After 3 to 4 weeks, the caterpillars pupate, often after long hikes in search of suitable sites.
The adult butterfly has a wingspan of 55 - 65 millimetres. The front wings have black edges. The females have an additional black spot on the front wings. The underside of the rear wings is grey-green.
There are 2-3 generations of large white per year, from March until early November. The caterpillars of the 2nd generation can cause severe damage to cabbage crops. The large white is therefore considered a pest.

Pieris (Pieris) brassicae
Subspecies37
Common namesSmall White, White cabbage butterfly, Cabbage White, Cabbage Butterfly, Large White, Large cabbage white, Large Cabbage-White, Indian large cabbage white
German namesGroßer Kohlweißling, Grosser Kohlweissling, Großer Kohl-Weißling
Dutch namesGroot koolwitje
Danish namesStor Kålsommerfugl
Finnish namesKaaliperhonen
Norwegian namesStor kålsommerfugl
Swedish namesKålfjäril
Spanish namesBlanca de la Col, Mariposa de la Col
Italian namesCavolaia maggiore, La
French namesPiéride du Chou, Grande Piéride du Chou, Papillon du Chou, La
AuthorCarl von Linné (Carl Nilsson Linnæus), 1758
Distribution
Continents:

Eurasia
Europe
North Europe (British Isles (United Kingdom (Great Britain (England (South England (Southeast England (Kent (East Kent (Folkestone), North Kent), Isle of Wight, Hampshire, Berkshire, Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Sussex (East Sussex, West Sussex), Surrey county), Southwest England (Cornwall, Gloucestershire, Bristol, Somerset, Wiltshire, Dorsetshire), Greater London), East England (Suffolk, Hertfordshire, Essex, Cambridgeshire (Cambridge), Bedfordshire), English Midlands (East Midlands (Leicestershire, Rutland, Lincolnshire, Derbyshire, Northamptonshire, Nottinghamshire), West Midlands (Herefordshire, Warwickshire, Shropshire)), North England (Northwest England (Cumbria, Lancashire, Cheshire, Merseyside), Yorkshire (North Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, South Yorkshire), Northeast England (County Durham))), Wales, Scotland (Northern Isles (Orkney Islands))), Northern Ireland), Ireland), Germany (West Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia)), Scandinavia (Norway (Vestfold, Aust-Agder, Vest-Agder, Akershus, Buskerud, Nordland, Rogaland, Telemark, Hordaland, Møre and Romsdal, Nord-Trøndelag, Oppland, Sogn and Fjordane, Sør-Trøndelag, Østfold), Sweden, Denmark), Fennoscandia (Finland (Åland Islands)), Baltic region (Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)), Iceland), West Europe (Austria, France (South France (Corsica, Occitania (Midi-Pyrenees))), Switzerland, Benelux (Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg), Liechtenstein, Channel Islands (Guernsey)), South Europe (Italy (Italy Islands (Sicily, Sardinia), North Italy, South Italy), Iberian Peninsula (Spain (South Spain (Andalusia)), Portugal, Andorra)), Central Europe (Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic (Moravia, Bohemia), Slovakia), Southeast Europe (Romania, Yugoslavia (Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia), Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia), Bosnia and Herzegovina), Bulgaria, Greece (Aegean Islands (Crete)), Albania, Moldova), East Europe (Ukraine, Belarus), Malta
Asia
South Asia (Nepal, India (North India (Jammu and Kashmir (Kashmir), Chandigarh)), Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh), Far East (East Asia (China (West China (Southwest China (Yunnan))), Japan), Southeast Asia (Thailand (North Thailand), Myanmar, Indochinese Peninsula (Laos, Vietnam (North Vietnam)))), West Asia (Near East (Turkey, Cyprus, Jordan, Israel, Egypt, Iran, Lebanon), Palestine), Central Asia (Tajikistan, Turkestan (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan)), North Asia
Caucasus
Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan
Russia
European Russia (North European Russia (Leningrad Oblast)), Siberia (Russian Far East (Sakhalin Oblast (Sakhalin)))
Oceania
Polynesia
New Zealand, Norfolk Island
Africa
North Africa
Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Macaronesia (Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands)
Southern Africa
Republic South Africa
America
North America
USA (New York)
South America
Chile


Fossils: Paleozoic,
Devonian,

Ecozones:

Palaearctic
West Palaearctic


Distribution by Synonymus:
Pieris brassicae brassicae   Jordan, Bangladesh
CountriesAfghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Chile, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Morocco, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, USA, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, Vietnam
Taxonomic statusParatype, Holotype, Allotype
Links and ReferencesPieris brassicae in faunaeur.org
Pieris brassicae in itis.gov
Pieris brassicae in leps.it
Pieris brassicae in dyntaxa.se
Pieris brassicae in Wikipedia (English)

Description of images / photos
Photography with Cameras
Nikon D3x, Nikon D300, Canon 50D
Image editing with Photoshop
1. Large White - Pieris brassicae
2. Pieris brassicae
Quick search: Pieris - Brassicae - White - Cabbage - Caterpillars - Butterfly
Wings - Black - Plants - June - Europe - Females - Groups - Front
Taxonomy
ClassInsecta
Insects, True insects
SubclassPterygota
Winged insects
InfraclassNeoptera
Wing-folding insects
SuperorderHolometabola
Holometabolous Insects
OrderLepidoptera
Lepidopterans, Butterflies and Moths
SuborderGlossata
InfraorderHeteroneura
SectionCossina
SubsectionBombyces
SuperfamilyPapilionoidea
True butterflies, Butterflies
FamilyPieridae
Yellows & Whites & Sulphurs, Yellow White Butterflies, Orange-tips, Sulphurs, White butterflies, Brimstones, Orangetips, Sulfurs, Tip butterflies, Whites and Yellows, Whites, Yellows, Whites and Sulphurs
SubfamilyPierinae
Whites, Marbles and Orangetips, White tip butterflies
TribePierini
Cabbage Whites, Checkered Whites, Albatrosses
SubtribePierina
GenusPieris
Whites, Fetterbush, Lily of the valley tree
SubgenusPieris
Whites, Fetterbush, Lily of the valley tree
Speciesbrassicae
Pieris brassicae
Small White, White cabbage butterfly, Cabbage White, Cabbage Butterfly, Large White, Large cabbage white, Large Cabbage-White, Indian large cabbage white
AuthorLinnaeus, 1758
 
Synonyms
Artogeia brassicae
Papilio brassicae
Pieris brassicae
Pieris brassicae ab.
Pieris brassicae brassicae
Pieris brassicae brassicoides
Pieris brassicae lutea
Pieris brassicae ottonis
Pieris brassicae var. brassicoides
Pieris brassicae wollastoni
Pieris chariclea
 
Subspecies
Pieris brassicae abinensis
Pieris brassicae albinensis
Pieris brassicae brassicae
Pieris brassicae brassicoides
Pieris brassicae carnea
Pieris brassicae catoleuca
Pieris brassicae chariclea
Pieris brassicae cheiranthi
Pieris brassicae coerulea
Pieris brassicae fasciata
Pieris brassicae flava
Pieris brassicae flavopicta
Pieris brassicae glaseri
Pieris brassicae infra-fasciata
Pieris brassicae infratrinotata
Pieris brassicae lacticolor
Pieris brassicae lepidii
Pieris brassicae longomaculata
Pieris brassicae marginata
Pieris brassicae maria
Pieris brassicae minor
Pieris brassicae nepalensis
Pieris brassicae nigronotata
Pieris brassicae nigroviridescens
Pieris brassicae ocellataloberi
Pieris brassicae ottonis
Pieris brassicae pallida
Pieris brassicae perflava
Pieris brassicae postermaculata
Pieris brassicae postice-ochreata
Pieris brassicae reducta
Pieris brassicae separata
Pieris brassicae striata
Pieris brassicae vasquezi
Pieris brassicae venata
Pieris brassicae verna
Pieris brassicae wollastoni
 Pictures

Keywords
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