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Nymphalidae - Meadow Brown - Maniola jurtina
Nymphalidae - Meadow Brown - Maniola jurtina


Meadow brown
The meadow brown (Maniola jurtina) is a species in the order butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) and the family Nymphalidae. It is common in Europe, North America and Asia. Meadow browns reach wingspans of 40 - 50 mm. In the females, the upper surface of the wings is dark brown. The front wings have a yellow-orange band, and a dark, round spot with a white centre which resembles an eye. The males are smaller and have a similar colouration. However, their "eyes" are not as big as those of the females. The undersides of the wings are yellow. There are "eyes" there too. The underside of the hind wings bears a jagged grey band. In the males this is a bit lighter.
Butterfly - Meadow Brown
Butterfly - Meadow Brown
The caterpillar is green. It has a dark stripe on its upper surface. The last segment bears the forked tail. The meadow brown is found almost everywhere, but is rare above 1600 metres.

Eggs are laid on the soil or on grass. The caterpillars shed their skin twice. They overwinter and pupate in May. The cocoon is spun on a blade of grass and is yellowish-green. The next adult meadow browns emerge in June.

The meadow brown is active from June to September. It reproduces once a year.

Maniola (Maniola) jurtina
Subspecies41
Common namesMeadow Brown
German namesGroßes Ochsenauge, Grosses Ochsenauge, Maennchen, Kuhauge
Dutch namesBruin zandoogje
Danish namesGræsrandøje
Finnish namesTummahäränsilmä
Norwegian namesRappringvinge
Swedish namesSlåttergräsfjäril
Spanish namesLoba, La Loba
French namesMyrtil, Myrtile, Jurtine, Janire, Le
AuthorCarl von Linné (Carl Nilsson Linnæus), 1758
Distribution
Continents:

Eurasia
Europe
North Europe (British Isles (United Kingdom (Great Britain (England (English Midlands (East Midlands (Leicestershire, Northamptonshire, Lincolnshire, Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire), West Midlands (Staffordshire, Warwickshire, Herefordshire, Worcestershire, Shropshire)), South England (Southeast England (Hampshire, Buckinghamshire, Sussex (East Sussex, West Sussex), Kent (East Kent (Folkestone), North Kent), Isle of Wight, Berkshire, Oxfordshire, Surrey county), Southwest England (Isles of Scilly, Cornwall, Gloucestershire, Somerset, Wiltshire, Dorsetshire, Devonshire), Greater London), East England (Cambridgeshire (Huntingdonshire), Suffolk, Hertfordshire, Essex, Bedfordshire), North England (Northeast England (Northumberland, County Durham), Northwest England (Cumbria, Lancashire, Cheshire, Merseyside, Greater Manchester), Yorkshire (North Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, East Riding of Yorkshire))), Scotland (Scottish Highlands (Hebrides), Northern Isles (Orkney Islands), Fife, Grampian), Wales (North Wales (Denbighshire, Caernarfonshire, Anglesey), South Wales (Southwest Wales (Pembrokeshire)), Mid Wales (Cardiganshire, Brecknockshire))), Northern Ireland), Ireland), Germany (West Germany (South Germany (Bavaria), North Rhine-Westphalia, North Germany)), Scandinavia (Norway (Vestfold, Aust-Agder, Vest-Agder, Rogaland, Telemark, Hordaland, Østfold), Sweden, Denmark), Fennoscandia (Finland (Åland Islands)), Baltic region (Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania))), West Europe (Austria (Vienna), France (South France (Corsica, Occitania (Languedoc-Roussillon (Aude), Midi-Pyrenees), Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes (Rhône-Alpes (Savoie)))), Switzerland, Benelux (Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg), Liechtenstein, Channel Islands (Sark)), South Europe (Italy (Italy Islands (Sicily, Sardinia), South Italy (Calabria, Abruzzo (L´Aquila)), North Italy, Central Italy (Lazio (Rome, Frosinone))), Iberian Peninsula (Spain (South Spain (Andalusia)), Portugal, Andorra)), Central Europe (Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic (Moravia, Bohemia), Slovakia), Southeast Europe (Romania, Yugoslavia (Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia), Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia), Bosnia and Herzegovina), Bulgaria, Greece (Aegean Islands (Crete)), Albania, Moldova), East Europe (Ukraine, Belarus), Malta
Asia
South Asia (India (East India (Bihar))), West Asia (Near East (Turkey, Cyprus, Syria, Iran, Iraq)), Far East (East Asia (Japan)), Central Asia (Turkestan (Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan)), North Asia
Caucasus
Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan
Russia
European Russia (North European Russia (Leningrad Oblast)), Siberia (West Siberia), Ural (Kurgan Oblast)
Africa
North Africa
Algeria, Tunisia, Macaronesia (Canary Islands), Morocco
Oceania
Polynesia
Norfolk Island


Ecozones:

Palaearctic
West Palaearctic


Fossils:

Paleozoic
Devonian
Mesozoic
Jurassic


CountriesAlbania, Algeria, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Kingdom
Links and ReferencesManiola jurtina in faunaeur.org
Maniola jurtina in leps.it
Maniola jurtina in dyntaxa.se
Maniola jurtina in Wikipedia (English)

Description of images / photos
Photography with Cameras
Nikon D3x, Nikon D300, Canon 50D
Image editing with Photoshop
1. Nymphalidae - Meadow Brown - Maniola jurtina
2. Butterfly - Meadow Brown
Quick search: Brown - Wings - Eyes - Nymphalidae - Meadow - Dark
Band - Yellow - June - Females - Green - Males - Bears - Maniola
Taxonomy
ClassInsecta
Insects, True insects
SubclassPterygota
Winged insects
InfraclassNeoptera
Wing-folding insects
SuperorderHolometabola
Holometabolous Insects
OrderLepidoptera
Lepidopterans, Butterflies and Moths
SuborderGlossata
InfraorderHeteroneura
SectionCossina
SubsectionBombyces
SuperfamilyPapilionoidea
True butterflies, Butterflies
FamilyNymphalidae
Brush Footed Butterflies, Fritillaries, Browns, Admirals, Four-footed butterflies, Brushfoot butterflies, Purples, Mourningclocks, Crescent-spots, Checker-spots, Anglewings, Brushfooted Butterflies
SubfamilySatyrinae
Satyrs and Wood-nymphs, Satyrines, Satyrids, Browns, Graylings, Ringlets, Heaths
TribeSatyrini
Graylings, Ringlets and allies, Alpines, Arctics, Nymphs and Satyrs
SubtribeManiolina
GenusManiola
Meadowbrowns, Meadow Brown
SubgenusManiola
Meadowbrowns, Meadow Brown
Speciesjurtina
Maniola jurtina
Meadow Brown
AuthorLinnaeus, 1758
 
Synonyms
Epinephele caeca
Epinephele janira
Epinephele janira auct.
Epinephele jurtina
Epinephele subtusalbida
Maniola frohawki
Maniola infrarecticulata
Maniola janira
Maniola jurtina
Maniola latimargo
Maniola lemur
Maniola marginata
Maniola nigrianira
Maniola parafeminea
Maniola semiintermedia
Papilio jurtina
Papilio xiphia
Pararge janira auct.
Satyrus janira
Satyrus janira auct.
 
Subspecies
Maniola jurtina addenda
Maniola jurtina anticrassipuncta
Maniola jurtina antiexcessa
Maniola jurtina antifulva
Maniola jurtina biocellata
Maniola jurtina brevipennis
Maniola jurtina cantabrica
Maniola jurtina cassiteridium
Maniola jurtina cassiteridum
Maniola jurtina corfiothispulla
Maniola jurtina emihispulla
Maniola jurtina feminea
Maniola jurtina fortunata
Maniola jurtina grisea-argentacea
Maniola jurtina hispulla
Maniola jurtina huenei
Maniola jurtina hyperhispulla
Maniola jurtina iernes
Maniola jurtina ierniformis
Maniola jurtina illuminata
Maniola jurtina inernes
Maniola jurtina insularis
Maniola jurtina intermedia
Maniola jurtina janira
Maniola jurtina jurtina
Maniola jurtina major
Maniola jurtina maraschi
Maniola jurtina miscens
Maniola jurtina nuragiformis
Maniola jurtina pallens
Maniola jurtina partimtransformis
Maniola jurtina persica
Maniola jurtina phormia
Maniola jurtina postfulvosa
Maniola jurtina radiata
Maniola jurtina schweigeri
Maniola jurtina splendida
Maniola jurtina strandiana
Maniola jurtina tithoniformis
Maniola jurtina transformis
Maniola jurtina wauteiri
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