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Small White - Pieris rapae
Small White - Pieris rapae


Small white
The small white (Pieris rapae) is a butterfly of the family Pieridae. It is common in Europe, Asia, North America and Australia.

The small white reaches wingspans of 40 - 50 mm. Its wings are white with black spots. The front wings have grey to black tips. The undersides of the hind wings are grey to yellow. The caterpillar is a dull green colour with light stripes on the sides.
Small White - Pieridae - butterfly - side face
Small White - Pieridae - butterfly - side face
The small white feeds on the nectar of various flowering plants. The females lay about 150 eggs on the food plants of their caterpillars - Cruciferae, cabbage, Reseda, cress, mustard and radish - which hatch after a maximum of 8 days. The caterpillars are solitary. After moulting four times they pupate. If the pupae do not hibernate, the new butterflies emerge after 10 days. The small white produces 2 - 3 new generations a year.

Pieris (Artogeia) rapae
Subspecies46
Common namesWhite butterfly, Small cabbage white, Small White, Cabbage White Butterfly, Imported cabbageworm, Cabbage butterfly, Cabbage white, Female Cabbage White
German namesKleiner Kohlweißling, Kleiner Kohlweissling, Rübenweißling, Kleiner Kohl-Weißling, Rübenweissling
Dutch namesKlein koolwitje
Danish namesLille Kålsommerfugl
Finnish namesNaurisperhonen
Norwegian namesLiten kålsommerfugl
Swedish namesRovfjäril, Rovefjäril
Spanish namesBlanquita de la col
Italian namesRapaiola
French namesPiéride de la Rave, Petit Blanc du Chou, Petite Piéride du Chou, La
AuthorCarl von Linné (Carl Nilsson Linnæus), 1758
Eco zoneFreshwater
Distribution
Continents:

Eurasia
Europe
North Europe (British Isles (United Kingdom (Great Britain (England (South England (Southeast England (Kent (East Kent (Folkestone), North Kent), Isle of Wight, Hampshire, Berkshire, Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Sussex (East Sussex, West Sussex), Surrey county), Southwest England (Cornwall, Gloucestershire, Somerset, Wiltshire, Isles of Scilly, Dorsetshire, Devonshire), Greater London), East England (Suffolk, Hertfordshire, Essex, Cambridgeshire (Cambridge, Huntingdonshire), Bedfordshire), English Midlands (East Midlands (Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire), West Midlands (Herefordshire, Warwickshire, Staffordshire, Worcestershire)), North England (Northwest England (Cumbria, Cheshire), Northeast England (Northumberland, Tyne and Wear, County Durham), Yorkshire (North Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, South Yorkshire))), Wales (South Wales (Southeast Wales (Glamorganshire)), Mid Wales (Brecknockshire)), Scotland (Fife)), Northern Ireland), Ireland), Germany (West Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia)), Scandinavia (Norway (Vestfold, Aust-Agder, Vest-Agder, Akershus, Buskerud, Oslo, Rogaland, Telemark, Hedmark, Hordaland, Møre and Romsdal, Nord-Trøndelag, Oppland, Sogn and Fjordane, Sør-Trøndelag, Østfold), Sweden, Denmark), Fennoscandia (Finland (Åland Islands)), Baltic region (Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)), Iceland), West Europe (Austria, France (South France (Corsica, Occitania (Midi-Pyrenees))), Switzerland, Benelux (Belgium (Flanders (Antwerp)), Netherlands, Luxembourg), Liechtenstein), South Europe (Italy (Italy Islands (Sicily, Sardinia), North Italy, South Italy, Central Italy (Lazio (Rome, Frosinone))), Iberian Peninsula (Spain (South Spain (Andalusia)), Portugal, Andorra)), Central Europe (Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic (Moravia, Bohemia), Slovakia), Southeast Europe (Romania, Yugoslavia (Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia), Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia), Bosnia and Herzegovina), Bulgaria, Greece (Aegean Islands (Crete)), Albania, Moldova), East Europe (Ukraine, Belarus), Malta
Asia
South Asia (Nepal, India, Afghanistan, Pakistan), Far East (East Asia (China (Central China (South-central China (Hong Kong))), Taiwan, Japan (Kyushu, Hokkaido), Mongolia, Korea (South Korea)), Southeast Asia (Indochinese Peninsula (Vietnam), Philippines, Thailand)), West Asia (Near East (Turkey, Cyprus, Israel, Egypt, Iran, Lebanon, Iraq, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Jordan)), Central Asia (Tajikistan, Turkestan (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan)), North Asia
Caucasus
Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan
Russia
Siberia (Altai, Russian Far East (Sakhalin Oblast (Sakhalin))), European Russia (North European Russia (Leningrad Oblast))
Oceania
Australasia
Australia (Tasmania (Tasmanian Central Highlands, South Tasmania (Southeast Tasmania (Hobart)), King Island), East Australia (Queensland (Desert Uplands (Brigalow Belt South)), New South Wales (Australian Capital Territory (Canberra), Sydney Basin (Sydney), Blue Mountains, NSW North Coast, New England (New England Tablelands), Cobar Peneplain, South West Slopes), Victoria (Melbourne (Ferntree Gully, Mordialloc), Hattah-Kulkyne National Park (Lake Hattah))), South Australia (Kangaroo Island, South Eastern Highlands, Adelaide), West Australia, Northern Territory)
Melanesia
New Caledonia, Vanuatu
Polynesia
New Zealand (North Island (Gisborne)), Hawaii (O´ahu), Norfolk Island
Africa
North Africa
Algeria, Tunisia, Macaronesia (Canary Islands (La Gomera), Madeira), Morocco
West Africa
Liberia
America
North America
Mexico (Central Mexico), USA (Florida, Louisiana, California, Montana, Illinois, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Texas (Travis County), Mississippi, New Jersey, South Carolina, Arizona, New Mexico, Washington, Oregon, Alaska, Massachusetts, Maryland, Rhode Island, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Idaho, Tennessee, Wisconsin, Alabama, New York, Virginia, Iowa, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, Indiana, Ohio, West Virginia, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Nevada, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Nebraska, South Dakota, Delaware, Vermont, North Dakota, Lake Erie Islands), Canada (Alberta, Quebec, Ontario, British Columbia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Newfoundland and Labrador), Bermuda Islands (Bermuda), Saint Pierre and Miquelon


Ecozones:

Nearctic
Palaearctic
West Palaearctic


Fossils: Paleozoic,
Devonian,

CountriesAfghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, USA, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam
Distr. infoWet Tropics
Taxonomic statusParatype
Links and ReferencesPieris rapae in bie.ala.org.au
Pieris rapae in faunaeur.org
Pieris rapae in insectidentification.org
Pieris rapae in itis.gov
Pieris rapae in leps.it
Pieris rapae in dyntaxa.se
Pieris rapae in Wikipedia (English)

Description of images / photos
Photography with Cameras
Nikon D3x, Nikon D300, Canon 50D
Image editing with Photoshop
1. Small White - Pieris rapae
2. Small White - Pieridae - butterfly - side face
Quick search: White - Small - Wings - Black - Caterpillars - Pieridae
Pieris - Butterfly - Grey - Plants - Green - Hatch - Hind - Pupae
Taxonomy
ClassInsecta
Insects, True insects
SubclassPterygota
Winged insects
InfraclassNeoptera
Wing-folding insects
SuperorderHolometabola
Holometabolous Insects
OrderLepidoptera
Lepidopterans, Butterflies and Moths
SuborderGlossata
InfraorderHeteroneura
SectionCossina
SubsectionBombyces
SuperfamilyPapilionoidea
True butterflies, Butterflies
FamilyPieridae
Yellows & Whites & Sulphurs, Yellow White Butterflies, Orange-tips, Sulphurs, White butterflies, Brimstones, Orangetips, Sulfurs, Tip butterflies, Whites and Yellows, Whites, Yellows, Whites and Sulphurs
SubfamilyPierinae
Whites, Marbles and Orangetips, White tip butterflies
TribePierini
Cabbage Whites, Checkered Whites, Albatrosses
SubtribePierina
GenusPieris
Whites, Fetterbush, Lily of the valley tree, Large White, Green-veined White, Small White
SubgenusArtogeia
Garden whites
Speciesrapae
Pieris rapae
White butterfly, Small cabbage white, Small White, Cabbage White Butterfly, Imported cabbageworm, Cabbage butterfly, Cabbage white, Female Cabbage White
AuthorLinnaeus, 1758
Wingspan32 mm
 
Synonyms
Artogeia rapae
Papilio rapae
Pieris Brassciae crucivora
Pieris brassciae var. crucivora
Pieris immaculata
Pieris metra
Pieris napaeae
Pieris novangliae
Pieris rapae
Pieris rapae flavescens
Pieris yreka
 
Subspecies
Pieris rapae atomaria
Pieris rapae conjugata
Pieris rapae conjuncta
Pieris rapae cordata
Pieris rapae crucivora
Pieris rapae crucivorina
Pieris rapae debilis
Pieris rapae deleta
Pieris rapae disconulla
Pieris rapae divisa
Pieris rapae eumorpha
Pieris rapae fasciata
Pieris rapae flava
Pieris rapae flavescens
Pieris rapae flavoapicalis
Pieris rapae griseosignata
Pieris rapae immaculata
Pieris rapae impunctata
Pieris rapae iranica
Pieris rapae lacticolor
Pieris rapae leucosoma
Pieris rapae leucotera
Pieris rapae longomaculata
Pieris rapae magnomaculata
Pieris rapae mandschurica
Pieris rapae mannidia
Pieris rapae marginata
Pieris rapae mauretanica
Pieris rapae messanensis
Pieris rapae minor
Pieris rapae nigropunctata
Pieris rapae novangliae
Pieris rapae obsoleta
Pieris rapae orientalis
Pieris rapae originalis
Pieris rapae praeterita
Pieris rapae pseudaestiva
Pieris rapae rapae
Pieris rapae semialba
Pieris rapae subtalbata
Pieris rapae subtus-flava
Pieris rapae transcaucasia
Pieris rapae transcaucasica
Pieris rapae triangulata
Pieris rapae unimaculata
Pieris rapae yreka
 Pictures

Keywords
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