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Braconid - Braconidae
Braconid - Braconidae


Braconids
The braconids (Braconidae) form a family in the order hymenopterans (Hymenoptera), the suborder Apocrita, the section Terebrantia and the superfamily Ichneumonoidea. Approximately 12,000 species of braconids have been classified worldwide and about 1100 of these were found in the British Islands. It is thought that there are as many as 40,000 - 50,000 species of broconids in total.
The family is divided into 45 subfamilies: Adeliinae, Agathidinae, Alysiinae, Amicrocentrinae, Aphidiinae, Apozyginae, Betylobraconinae, Blacinae, Braconinae, Cardiochilinae, Cenocoeliinae, Cheloninae, Dirrhopinae, Doryctinae, Ecnomiinae, Euphorinae, Exothecinae, Gnamptodontinae, Helconinae, Histeromerinae, Homolobinae, Hormiinae, Khoikhoiinae, Ichneutinae, Macrocentrinae, Masoninae, Mendesellinae, Mesostoinae, Meterorideinae, Meteorinae, Microgastrinae, Microtypinae, Miracinae, Neoneurinae, Opiinae, Orgilinae, Pselaphaninae, Rhyssalinae, Rogadinae, Sigalphinae, Telengaiinae, Trachypetinae, Vaepellinae, Ypsistocerinae and Xiphozelinae.

These subfamilies are divided into about 1,000 genera, which includes: Ademon, Aphanta, Asobara, Bracon, Cenocoelius, Chaenusa, Chorebidea, Chorebidella, Chorebus, Cotesia, Dacnusa, Microgaster, Opius, Parapanteles, Phaenocarpa and Psenobolus.
The appearance of braconids differs dramatically. They are usually smaller than ichneumon wasps (Ichneumonidae).They are often black and brown, sometimes with reddish markings. Other species are clearly recognisable due to their eye-catching colours and patterns, while others are similar in appearance to other insects (Müller-mimicry complex).
Their antennae have 16 segments or more and do not bend. The venation of the wings is very diverse. An important criterion for identification is the absence of a particular vein on the front wings. The trochantersof the hind legs comprise 2 segments. Female braconids have very long ovipositors, which can differ in length even within a species. The great length of the ovipositor, up to fourteen times the actual body length, is required for egg laying, which is often done by boring holes through leaves into the interior of caterpillars, which can have long spines or bristles for protection. An important characteristic of braconids is the rigid connection of their 2nd and 3rd abdominal segments.
The lifestyle of the braconids varies greatly. They represent an important environmental regulator and are suitable for biological pest control. The majority of species lay their eggs in the eggs, larvae or pupae of other insects. Some species of the subfamilies Mesostoinae and Doryctinae are therefore well known for depositing their eggs in plant leaves (they lay their eggs in bile).
The larvae of the braconids can often be difficult to identify. Some mature larvae can only be distinguished by their pharyngeal skeleton.

Genera1.241
Species25.725
Common namesBraconids, Braconid wasps
German namesBrackwespen
Dutch namesSchildwespen, Braconide sluipwespen
Finnish namesVainopistiäiset, Vainokaisia, Vainopistiäisten
Swedish namesBracksteklar
French namesBraconidés
AuthorLatreille, 1829
Distribution
Checklists

Continents:

Eurasia
America
Africa
Oceania


Ecozones:

Palaearctic
Nearctic
Afrotropical
Neotropical
Indo-Australian region
Holarctic


Fossils:

Cenozoic
Paleozoic
Mesozoic


World Oceans:

Pacific Ocean


Countries
Checklists
Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Korea, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Korea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, USA, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Links and ReferencesBraconidae in bie.ala.org.au
Braconidae in faunaeur.org
Braconidae in itis.gov
Braconidae in dyntaxa.se
Braconidae in Wikipedia (English)

Description of images / photos
Photography with Cameras
Nikon D3x, Nikon D300, Canon 50D
Image editing with Photoshop
1. Braconid - Braconidae
Quick search: Braconidae - Wing - Telengaiinae - Insect - Wasp - Spider
Legs - Larvae - Female - Hymenoptera - Species - Eggs - Segments - Subfamilies
Taxonomy
ClassInsecta
Insects, True insects
SubclassPterygota
Winged insects
InfraclassNeoptera
Wing-folding insects
SuperorderHolometabola
Holometabolous Insects
OrderHymenoptera
Wasps, Bees, Ants, Sawflies, Ants and wasps
SuborderApocrita
True wasps, Bees, Ants, Narrow-waisted hymenopterans, Parasitic wasps, Wasps
InfraorderParasitica
Parasitoid wasps, Parasitic Apocrita, Parasitic wasps
SuperfamilyIchneumonoidea
Parasitic hymenoptera, Braconids and Ichneumons, Ichneumonoid wasps, Parasitic wasps
FamilyBraconidae
Braconids, Braconid wasps
AuthorLatreille, 1829
 
Synonyms
Eoichneumonidae (Jell & Duncan, 1986)
 Species overview

Keywords
ABCDEFGHIJKLM
NOPQRSTUVWXYZ
German Flag Brackwespen
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Frequent Queries:
braconidae (6)
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braconids (2)
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